Colonial Times, Slavery, Rev. War, Constitution 5
The Great Convergence 5

U. S. History and Geography

Era 1 – Beginnings to 1620

American Indian Life in the Americas:

Describe the life of peoples living in North America before European exploration.
  • 5‐U1.1.1: Use maps to locate peoples in the desert Southwest, the Pacific Northwest, and nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the woodland peoples east of the Mississippi River.
  • 5‐U1.1.2: Compare how American Indians in the desert Southwest and the Pacific Northwest adapted to or modified the environment.
  • 5‐U1.1.3: Describe Eastern Woodland American Indian life with respect to governmental and family structures, trade, and views on property ownership and laud use.

European Exploration:

Identify the causes and consequences of European exploration and colonization.
  • 5‐U1.2.1: Explain the technological (e.g., invention of the astrolabe and improved maps), and political developments, (e.g., rise of nation‐states), that made sea exploration possible.
  • 5‐U1.2.2: Use case studies of individual explorers and stories of life in Europe to compare the goals, obstacles, motivations, and consequences for European exploration and colonization of the Americas (e.g., economic, political, cultural, and religious).
  • African Life Before the 16th Century:
  • Describe the lives of people living in western Africa prior to the 16th Century.
  • 5‐U1.3.1: Use maps to locate the major regions of Africa (northern Africa, western Africa, central Africa, eastern Africa, southern Africa).
  • 5‐U1.3.2: Describe the life and cultural development of people living in western Africa before the 16th century with respect to economic (the ways people made a living) and family structures, and the growth of states, towns, and trade.
  • Three World Interactions:
  • Describe the environmental, political, and cultural consequences of the interactions among European, African, and American Indian peoples in the late 15th through the 17th century.
  • 5‐U1.4.1: Describe the convergence of Europeans, American Indians and Africans in North America after 1492 from the perspective of these three groups.
  • 5‐U1.4.2: Use primary and secondary sources (e.g., letters, diaries, maps, documents, narratives, pictures, graphic data) to compare Europeans and American Indians who converged in the western ownership and land use.
  • 5‐U1.4.3: Explain the impact of European contact on American Indian cultures by comparing the different approaches used by the British and French in their interactions with American Indians.
  • 5‐U1.4.4: Describe the Columbian Exchange and its impact on Europeans, American Indians, and Africans.

Era 2 – Colonization and Settlement (15851763)

European Struggle for Control of North America:

Compare the regional settlement patterns and describe significant developments in Southern, New England, and the midAtlantic colonies.
  • 5U2.1.1: Describe significant developments in the Southern colonies.
  • 5U2.1.2: Describe significant developments in the New England colonies.
  • 5U2.1.3: Describe significant developments in the Middle Colonies.
  • 5U2.1.4: Compare the regional settlement patterns of the Southern colonies, New England, and the Middle Colonies.

European Slave Trade and Slavery in Colonial America:

Analyze the development of the slave system in the Americas and its impact upon the life of Africans.
  • 5U2.2.1: Describe Triangular Trade.
  • 5U2.2.2: Describe the life of enslaved Africans and free Africans in the American colonies.
  • 5U2.2.3: Describe how Africans living in North America drew upon their African past (e.g., sense of family, role of oral tradition) and adopted elements of new cultures to develop a distinct African‐American culture.

Life in Colonial America:

Distinguish among and explain the reasons for regional differences in colonial America.
  • 5U2.3.1: Locate the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies on a map.
  • 5U2.3.2: Describe the daily life of people living in the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.
  • 5U2.3.3: Describe colonial life in America from the perspectives of at least three different groups of people (e.g., wealthy landowners, farmers, merchants, indentured servants, laborers and the poor, women, enslaved people, free Africans, and American Indians).
  • 5U2.3.4: Describe the development of the emerging labor force in the colonies (e.g., cash crop farming, slavery, indentured servants).
  • 5U2.3.5: Make generalizations about the reasons for regional differences in colonial America.

Era 3 – Revolution and The New Nation (17541800)

Causes of the American Revolution:

Identify the major political, economic, and ideological reasons for the American Revolution.
  • 5U3.1.1: Describe the role of the French and Indian War, how British policy toward the colonies in America changed from 1763 to 1775, and colonial dissatisfaction with the new policy.
  • 5U3.1.2: Describe the causes and effects of events such as the Stamp Act, Boston Tea Party, the Intolerable Acts, and the Boston Massacre.
  • 5U3.1.3: Using an event from the Revolutionary era (e.g., Boston Tea party, quartering of soldiers, writs of assistance, closing of colonial legislatures), explain how British and colonial views on authority and the use of power without authority differed (views on representative government).
  • 5U3.1.4: Describe the role of the First and Second Continental Congress in unifying the
  • colonies (addressing the Intolerable Acts, declaring independence, drafting the Articles of Confederation).
  • 5U3.1.5: Use the Declaration of Independence to explain why the colonists wanted to separate from Great Britain and why they believed they had the right to do so.
  • 5U3.1.6: Identify the role that key individuals played in leading the colonists to revolution, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Patrick, Henry, Samuel Adams, John Adams, and Thomas Paine.
  • 5U3.1.7: Describe how colonial experiences with self‐government (e.g., Mayflower Compact, House of Burgesses and town meetings) and ideas about government (e.g., purposes of government such as protecting individual rights and promoting the common good, natural rights, limited government, representative government) influenced the decision to declare independence.
  • 5U3.1.8: Identify a problem confronting people in the colonies, identify alternative choices for addressing the problem with possible consequences, and describe the course of action taken.
  • The American Revolution and Its Consequences:
  • Explain the multifaceted nature of the American Revolution and its consequences.
  • 5U3.2.1: Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each side during the American Revolution with respect to military leadership, geography, types of resources, and incentives.
  • 5U3.2.2: Describe the importance of Valley Forge, Battle of Saratoga, and Battle of Yorktown in the American Revolution.
  • 5U3.2.3: Compare the role of women, African Americans, American Indians, and France in helping shape the outcome of the war.
  • 5U3.2.4: Describe the significance of the Treaty of Paris (establishment of the United States and its boundaries).
  • Creating New Government(s) and a New Constitution:
  • Explain some of the challenges faced by the new nation under the Articles of Confederation, and analyze the development of the constitution as a new plan for governing.
  • 5U3.3.1: Describe the powers of the national government and state governments under the Articles of Confederation.
  • 5U3.3.2: Give examples of problems the country faced under the Articles of Confederation (e.g., lack of national army, competing currencies, reliance on state governments for money).
  • 5U3.3.3: Explain why the Constitutional Convention was convened and why the Constitution was written.
  • 5U3.3.4: Describe the issues over representation and slavery the Framers faced at the Constitutional Convention and how they were addressed in the Constitution (Great Compromise, Three‐Fifths Compromise).
  • 5U3.3.5: Give reasons why the Framers wanted to limit the power of government (e.g., fear of a strong executive, representative government, importance of individual rights).
  • 5U3.3.6: Describe the principle of federalism and how it is expressed through the sharing and distribution of power as stated in the Constitution (e.g. enumerated and reserved powers).
  • 5U3.3.7: Describe the concern that some people had about individual rights and why the inclusion of a Bill of Rights was needed for ratification.
  • 5U3.3.8: Describe the rights found in the First, Second, Third, and Fourth Amendments to the United States Constitution.

Public Discourse, Decision Making, and Citizen Involvement Identifying and Analyzing Public Issues:

Clearly state a problem as a public policy issue, analyze various perspectives, and generate and evaluate possible alternative resolutions.
  • 5P3.1.1: Identify contemporary public issues related to the United States Constitution and their related factual, definitional, and ethical questions.
  • 5P3.1.2: Use graphic data and other sources to analyze information about a contemporary public issue related to the United States Constitution and evaluate alternative resolutions.
  • 5P3.1.3: Give examples of how conflicts over core democratic values lead people to differ on contemporary constitutional issues in the United States.

Persuasive Communication About a Public Issue:

Communicate a reasoned position on a public issue.
  • 5P3.3.1: Compose a short essay expressing a position on a contemporary public policy issue related to the Constitution and justify the position with a reasoned argument.

Citizen Involvement: Act constructively to further the public good.

  • 5P4.2.1: Develop and implement an action plan and know how, when, and where to address or inform others about a public issue.
  • 5P4.2.2: Participate in projects to help or inform others.